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Serrano peppers are hot chile peppers named for the mountain ridges in Mexico where they originated. They're considered a fruit, and they're popular in Mexican cuisine—only second to the jalapeño pepper in popularity. The small peppers also appear in Southeast Asian cuisine, adding a spicy bite wherever they appear. With a fiery heat and sharp flavor, they can be eaten raw in sauces and dips, pickled, or cooked.
The serrano pepper plant thrives in areas with hot summers and milder winters, like Mexico. The price of the peppers fluctuates with supply and demand. The supply is loosely dependent on the weather, which can either help or hinder a crop. Serrano peppers are often confused with jalapeño peppers but are smaller and can pack up to 10 times the heat. Torpedo shaped and typically no longer than 2 inches, serrano peppers can be found in a rainbow of colors depending on ripeness, from green to yellow, orange, red, and even brown. There is minimal preparation with serrano peppers: just rinsing, trimming, and slicing, but it's important to avoid the pepper's chile oils to avoiding burning skin and eyes.
Source: The Spruce Eats